Is Hybridization the best Explanation of Electronic Orbitals?
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Summary: The hybridization description of orbitals is beautifully elegant, just one problem it’s not “true”. the hybridised orbitals are described as degenerate, having the same energy level. However, it has been observed that there are two different energies (ionization energy) … Read More

Molecular Orbital Theory for Hydrogen Carbon Sigma bonds
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Summary: When the two pre-bond components are of different energy the diagram becomes asymmetric, this is exemplified by the Hydrogen Carbon σ. The bond’s precursor orbitals are the higher energy s orbital of the Hydrogen and the lower energy sp3 orbital of the … Read More

sp Hybridizsation
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Summary: Hybridization is the combining of s and p orbitals to form hybridized orbital. An sp hybridized orbital is the combining of one s and one p orbital making one lobe of the p orbital larger and one lobe smaller. With Carbon’s four valence electrons of the … Read More

sp2 Hybridization
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Summary: Hybridization is the combining of s and p orbitals to form hybridized orbital. An sp2 hybridized orbital is the combining of one s and two p orbital making one lobe of the p orbital larger and one lobe smaller. With Carbon’s four valence electrons of … Read More

sp3 Hybridization
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Summary: Hybridization is the combining of s and p orbitals to form hybridized orbital. An sp3 hybridized orbital is the combining of one s and three p orbital making one lobe of the p orbital larger and one lobe smaller. The electrons arrange themselves to … Read More

Electron Orbital Filling Rules
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Summary: As there are more electrons with the atom their inclusion follows electron filling rules. The Aufbau principle states that the lowest energy orbital is filled first, increasing in shells. Any orbital can have up to two electrons, each travelling … Read More